Long-term immobilisation of Cd2+ at the Tulul Al Hammam natural analogue site, central Jordan

Ella V. Sokol, Svetlana N. Kokh, Hani N. Khoury, Yurii V. Seryotkin, Sergei V. Goryainov

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12 Citations (Scopus)


The Tulul Al Hammam area in central Jordan is a natural analogue site where to study long-term Cd2+ retention during the weathering of Cd-enriched combustion-metamorphic marbles with clinker-like mineralogy. Natural Cd-rich portlandite (Ca0.67-0.45Cd0.33-0.55)[OH]2 was discovered and characterised by single-crystal XRD, SEM/EDS, and microprobe analyses, and Raman spectroscopy. The Ca[OH]2 - Cd[OH]2 solid solution ((Ca1-xCdx)[OH]2) is isostructural with Ca[OH]2 and β-Cd[OH]2 crystals in the CdI2-type of structure. Cd-rich portlandite is a common secondary phase in slightly altered massive marbles, where it replaces and rims single-crystals of the high-temperature precursor (Ca1-xCdx)O. The Cd:Ca molar ratios of (Ca1-xCdx)[OH]2 are inherited from the precursor phase (Ca1-xCdx)O. Reliable long-term immobilisation of Cd in (Ca1-xCdx)[OH]2 is assumed for pore water pH values from 10.5 up to 12 buffered by C-S-Hs formed mainly during spurrite hydration. The Tulul Al Hammam site may have some bearing on long-term Cd2+ retention in the concrete matrix.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-60
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Geochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


  • Cd-rich portlandite
  • Cement
  • Central Jordan
  • Long-term Cd retention
  • Natural analogue
  • Waste management


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