Levitation and Self-Organization of Droplets

Vladimir S. Ajaev, Oleg A. Kabov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


We review studies of levitating droplets over liquid-gas interfaces and dry solid surfaces with a focus on the physical mechanisms of levitation under different conditions. A fascinating physical phenomenon of self-organization of levitating droplets into large arrays is described and explanations for this unusual behavior are reviewed. Closely related topics of nonisothermal flotation and levitation of evaporating droplets over a pool of nonvolatile liquid, as well as recent advances in the study of the Leidenfrost effect, are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-225
Number of pages23
JournalAnnual Review of Fluid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2021


  • Evaporation
  • flotation
  • Leidenfrost effect
  • Marangoni flow
  • Stefan flow

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