Evaluation of HA-D222G/N polymorphism using targeted NGS analysis in A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus in Russia in 2018–2019

Alexey V. Danilenko, Natalia P. Kolosova, Alexander N. Shvalov, Tatyana N. Ilyicheva, Svetlana V. Svyatchenko, Alexander G. Durymanov, Julia A. Bulanovich, Natalia I. Goncharova, Ivan M. Susloparov, Vasiliy Y. Marchenko, Tatyana V. Tregubchak, Elena V. Gavrilova, Rinat A. Maksyutov, Alexander B. Ryzhikov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Outbreaks of influenza, which is a contagious respiratory disease, occur throughout the world annually, affecting millions of people with many fatal cases. The D222G/N mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of A(H1N1)pdm09 are associated with severe and fatal human influenza cases. These mutations lead to increased virus replication in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and may result in life-threatening pneumonia. Targeted NGS analysis revealed the presence of mutations in major and minor variants in 57% of fatal cases, with the proportion of viral variants with mutations varying from 1% to 98% in each individual sample in the epidemic season 2018–2019 in Russia. Co-occurrence of the mutations D222G and D222N was detected in a substantial number of the studied fatal cases (41%). The D222G/N mutations were detected at a low frequency (less than 1%) in the rest of the studied samples from fatal and nonfatal cases of influenza. The presence of HA D222Y/V/A mutations was detected in a few fatal cases. The high rate of occurrence of HA D222G/N mutations in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, their increased ability to replicate in the LRT and their association with fatal outcomes points to the importance of monitoring the mutations in circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses for the evaluation of their epidemiological significance and for the consideration of disease prevention and treatment options.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0251019
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number4 April
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • 1.06.ZE VIROLOGY


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of HA-D222G/N polymorphism using targeted NGS analysis in A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus in Russia in 2018–2019'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this