Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5–10.0 nm. It was proposed more than 30 years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (T < 80 K). Recently, application of spin labels with long electron spin dephasing time at room temperature such as triarylmethyl radicals and nitroxides with bulky substituents at a position close to radical centers enabled measurements at room temperature and even at physiologically relevant temperatures by PD EPR as well as other approaches based on EPR (e.g., relaxation enhancement; RE). In this paper, we review the features of PD EPR and RE at ambient temperatures, in particular, requirements on electron spin phase memory time, ways of immobilization of biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities.
- Pulse dipole EPR
- Trytil radical