Electronic structure of nitrogen-and phosphorus-doped graphenes grown by chemical vapor deposition method

L. G. Bulusheva, V. E. Arkhipov, K. M. Popov, V. I. Sysoev, A. A. Makarova, A. V. Okotrub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heteroatom doping is a widely used method for the modification of the electronic and chemical properties of graphene. A low-pressure chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) is used here to grow pure, nitrogen-doped and phosphorous-doped few-layer graphene films from methane, acetonitrile and methane-phosphine mixture, respectively. The electronic structure of the films transferred onto SiO2/Si wafers by wet etching of copper substrates is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy using a synchrotron radiation source. Annealing in an ultra-high vacuum at ca. 773 K allows for the removal of impurities formed on the surface of films during the synthesis and transfer procedure and changes the chemical state of nitrogen in nitrogen-doped graphene. Core level XPS spectra detect a low n-type doping of graphene film when nitrogen or phosphorous atoms are incorporated in the lattice. The electrical sheet resistance increases in the order: graphene < P-graphene < N-graphene. This tendency is related to the density of defects evaluated from the ratio of intensities of Raman peaks, valence band XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1173
Number of pages14
JournalMaterials
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2020

Keywords

  • CVD
  • Doping
  • Electronic structure
  • Few-layer graphene
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Resistivity
  • LITHIUM INTERACTION
  • GRAPHITIC MATERIAL
  • SINGLE
  • nitrogen
  • doping
  • PARAMETERS
  • CARBON NANOTUBES
  • FILMS
  • electronic structure
  • RAY PHOTOELECTRON-SPECTROSCOPY
  • CHEMISTRY
  • MONOLAYER
  • few-layer graphene
  • PRECURSORS
  • phosphorus
  • resistivity

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