We propose a general approach to the solution of direct dynamic problems of the numerical analysis of composite rods subjected to thermal and force loads for a large variety of their materials and loading conditions. We take into account the shear effects and interactions between the elements of structures and supporting media. The proposed inhomogeneous rods are regarded as elements of rod systems and characterized by higher parameters of strength and stiffness and lower costs of their production as compared with homogeneous elements. In the equations of motion and physical relations, we introduce four functional characteristics of stiffness and viscosity and three mass functional characteristics equivalently reflecting the dynamic deformation of composite rods with the help of a one-dimensional model. With the help of trigonometric Fourier series, the dynamic loads, displacements, and temperature are represented as products of functions of the coordinate and time. The solution of the homogeneous problem is obtained via the matrizant of the system of equations of the first order. Partial solutions for loads of various types and generalized temperature loads are obtained on the basis of approximation of given quantities and the required displacements by trigonometric series.