We studied the influence of depression-like behavior developed in C57BL/6J mice under conditions of social stress of different duration on cytokine production by splenic cells. Imbalance of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected at the early stage of depression-like behavior (10-day experience of defeats): increased production of proinflammatory IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines along with a decrease in anti-inflammatory IL-10 level; the levels of IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-4 remained unaffected. At later terms (20 days of confrontations), we revealed more pronounced changes in spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines that were not detected after shorter social stress. These findings suggest that cytokine profile depends on duration of social stress. Possible mechanisms of cytokine production during formation of depression-like state are discussed.
- depression-like behavior
- duration of social stress
- pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines
- splenic cells