«Circassian armor» in the system of defensive weapons of the peoples of the Muslim East XV - Mid XIX centuries

Leonid A. Bobrov, Alexey V. Salnikov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The article describes the composition, construction features and evolution of complex protective arms of soldiers of the North-West Caucasus of the late middle ages and early modern times. It is established that in the basis of "Circassian armor" XV - mid XIX centuries. Lay the protective arms of the Circassians epoch of the Golden Horde (XIII-XIV centuries). The main direction of development of protective arms of the Northwest Caucasus XV - mid XIX centuries was optimization of the design of the ring structure booking protection corps (the displacement of the traditional "chain armor" more easy and practical ringed "shell"), the emergence and spread of new and updated types of combat helmets (small hats, pdpao, misource, etc.), and tricuspid Bracers with ringed belt connection and ringed "polenakovic". Thus from the wide military use was supplanted by reliable but heavy helmets with masks-masks, the ring-plate body armor, decreased size and decreased the frequency of the use of shields, etc. the Result of this process was the gradual relief of the already not too heavy armor complex. The comparative analysis allowed to determine the "Circassian armor" as a special subcomplex (option) of the North Caucasian regional complex of West Asian military cultural traditions. The evolution of this subcomplex in the XV-XVIII centuries was due to the development of local production technologies for the relatively small influence of the Ottoman and Iranian panoplie. "Circassian armor" is one of the easiest protective weaponry complexes of the Western Asian military cultural traditions (the Circassians were not used so popular among the Turks and the Iranians ringed plate sertaline armor, ring, plate gaiters, armor for horses, etc.). However, the "Circassian armor" was optimally adapted to conduct intensive equestrian battle in the rugged conditions (including mining) and steppe landscape, which led to its popularity among many sedentary and nomadic peoples of the region and also determined the duration of its existence in military practice, soldiers of the North Caucasus and Eastern Europe. Reliable, but easy enough defensive armament allowed the Circassian armored units to combine mobility with high breakthrough capacity and sustainability in the near and distant combat, which made them extremely dangerous opponent, as for the armies of the nomads of Eastern Europe, and for the regular and irregular troops of the Russian Empire.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-753
Number of pages27
JournalBylye Gody
Volume45
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

Keywords

  • Armor
  • Armour
  • Circassians
  • Gauntlets
  • Helmets
  • North Caucasus
  • Western Asia
  • helmets
  • armor
  • gauntlets
  • armour

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