This chapter is aimed at highlighting several hot subjects in the catalytic processing of biomass-derived feedstocks using heterogeneous catalysts to obtain products important for the energy sector. The role of catalysts in biomass processing is inestimable: none of the value-added biomass-derived products described below could be obtained without their application. The first two sections of this chapter present the current state of the art in catalytic processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil and lipid-based feedstocks (e.g. vegetable oils) into motor fuel components. The last section describes recent advances in the field of obtaining fuel additives from various components of the both lignocellulosic biomass and vegetable lipids. The main aspects of the use of heterogeneous catalysts in these processes are considered.