Catalytic Aspects in the Synthesis of a Promising Energetic Material

Irina L. Simakova, Valentin N. Parmon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Synthesis of a promising energetic material CL-20 requires the two-step catalytic re-functionalization of N-bonded benzyl groups (CH2-C6H5) of hexabenzylhexaazaisowurtzitane (HBIW) into acetyl (-CO-CH3) or formyl groups (-CHO) over Pd/C catalyst before its direct nitrolysis into final CL-20 product. Utilization of an expensive palladium-based catalyst deactivated fast during reaction contributes substantially to a high CL-20 cost being a significant hurdle limiting wide application of CL-20 in a propellant formulation. In this work a careful systematic study was performed to improve efficiency, resistance to deactivation, and life-time of Pd/C catalysts as well as to elucidate the optimal hydrodebenzylation reaction conditions. The catalyst activity decrease for Pd/C was found to be caused mainly by agglomeration of metal nanoparticles, Pd re-deposition on inaccessible inner areas of the carbon support, and blocking of the metallic palladium with by-products of intermediates destruction. Different ways to enhance Pd/C catalytic activity through an improvement of Pd dispersion and resistance of Pd particles to agglomeration and re-oxidation as well as through an increase of Pd accessibility for large HBIW molecules were proposed. The two-step HBIW debenzylation with a separately repeated use of the catalyst in each catalytic stage was considered as a promising way to increase catalyst productivity and to diminish CL-20 production costs.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHEMICAL ROCKET PROPULSION: A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS
EditorsLT DeLuca, T Shimada, VP Sinditskii, M Calabro
PublisherSPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
Pages697-724
Number of pages28
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-27746-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Event12th International Workshop on Combustion and Propulsion - New Energetic Materials for Space Exploration - Milan, Italy
Duration: 9 Jun 201410 Jun 2014

Publication series

NameSpringer Aerospace Technology
PublisherSPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
ISSN (Print)1869-1730

Conference

Conference12th International Workshop on Combustion and Propulsion - New Energetic Materials for Space Exploration
CountryItaly
CityMilan
Period09.06.201410.06.2014

Keywords

  • SUPPORTED PALLADIUM CATALYSTS
  • REDUCTIVE DEBENZYLATION
  • PD/C CATALYSTS
  • STEARIC-ACID
  • KEY STEP
  • CL-20
  • HEXABENZYLHEXAAZAISOWURTZITANE
  • HYDROGENATION
  • DEACTIVATION
  • CARBON

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