Burning characteristics and soot formation in laminar methyl methacrylate pool flames

Dakshnamurthy Shanmugasundaram, Selvaraj Muthu Kumran, Stanislav A. Trubachev, Anna Bespalova, Oleg P. Korobeinichev, Andrey G. Shmakov, Vasudevan Raghavan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study presents careful measurements from lab-scale experiments and predictions from comprehensive numerical model for the burning characteristics of laminar flames over MMA pools of different diameters with varying ullages or lip heights. Lab-scale experiments for steady burning of MMA pool are conducted, and temperature and concentrations of major species, have been measured for 3 mm ullage case for pool diameters of 25 and 30 mm. A compact kinetic mechanism with 49 species and 376 reactions, and a soot model are used for numerical simulations. Steady burning of laminar flame over an MMA pool is modelled using coupling heterogeneous interface conditions. Variable thermo-physical properties and multi-component diffusion are used. Results from grid-independent numerical simulations compare with reasonable accuracy against experimental measurements. For 25 mm MMA pool, the mass burning rate decreases rapidly from zero to 2 mm ullage and drops relatively gradually with further increase in the ullage. The ratio of mass of soot in the domain to mass of fuel burnt, decreases rapidly with an increase in ullage from zero to 3 mm, remains in same order till 5 mm ullage and then decreases with increasing ullage. Increased flame stand-off from the pool interface and oxygen penetration into the ullage causing partial premixing, form the reasons for the reduction in mass burning rate and decrease in the production of soot. The effects of pool diameter on burning characteristics at three ullages have also been presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1153-1178
Number of pages26
JournalCombustion Theory and Modelling
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • compact chemical kinetics
  • mass burning rate
  • MMA pool
  • soot formation
  • soot model
  • ullage
  • GAS


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