In this paper, we study the effect of electroweak sphaleron transition and electroweak phase transition (EWPT) in balancing the baryon excess and the excess stable quarks of the 4th generation. Sphaleron transitions between baryons, leptons and the 4th family of leptons and quarks establish a definite relationship between the value and sign of the 4th family excess and baryon asymmetry. This relationship provides an excess of stable Ū antiquarks, forming dark atoms—the bound state of (ŪŪŪ) the anti-quark cluster and primordial helium nucleus. If EWPT is of the second order and the mass of U quark is about 3.5 TeV, then dark atoms can explain the observed dark matter density. In passing by, we show the small, yet negligible dilution in the pre-existing dark matter density, due to the sphaleron transition.
- 4th generation
- Early universe
- Electroweak phase transition
- 1.03.UP PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS
- 1.03.BU ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS