How chromosomes are folded, spatially organized and regulated in three dimensions inside the cell nucleus are among the longest standing questions in cell biology. Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technique allowed identifying and characterizing spatial chromatin compartments in several mammalian species. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis of chromatin interactions in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and adult erythrocytes. We showed that genome of CEF is partitioned into topologically associated domains (TADs), distributed in accordance with gene density, transcriptional activity and CTCF-binding sites. In contrast to mammals, where all examined somatic cell types display relatively similar spatial organization of genome, chicken erythrocytes strongly differ from fibroblasts, showing pronounced A- and B- compartments, absence of typical TADs and formation of long-range chromatin interactions previously observed on mitotic chromosomes. Comparing mammalian and chicken genome architectures, we provide evidence highlighting evolutionary role of chicken TADs and their significance in genome activity and regulation.
- CHROMOSOME EVOLUTION