The review presents the modern concept of the relationship between air pollution with fine particulate matter (PM) and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). The role of PM in the pathogenesis of DM, in particular, DM2, depending on their size, origin, chemical composition, and concentration in the air is discussed. For this purpose, we used materials from the articles indexed in the PubMed and RSCI databases. Road transport-related PM, containing intermediate valence metals are believed to be the most dangerous ones. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fine and ultrafine PM is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes and mortality. Short-term exposure to PM causes vascular insulin resistance and inflammation triggered by oxidative stress in the lungs. Oxidative stress caused by exposure to PM is the central stage of inflammatory reactions, leading to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from cells and systemic inflammation. Exposure to PM sized 2.5 microns or less results in significant increase in expression of proinflammatory genes and activation of corresponding signaling pathways. Involvement of PM into impairment of glucose homeostasis and increase in inflammation in adipose tissue, liver, and central nervous system has been confirmed in models and experimental studies. The role of air pollution with PM in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is still not fully understood, especially at the molecular and cellular level. The development of formalized descriptions of the processes mediating the effect of PM on the human body will provide better understanding of the role of air pollution with suspended particles in the pathogenesis of various diseases and, in particular, DM2, which can contribute to improvement of treatments and preventive measures.
|Translated title of the contribution||О связи сахарного диабета 2-го типа с загрязнением воздуха взвешенными частицами|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2018|
State classification of scientific and technological information
- 34.15 Molecular biology