«Национальные» операции Большого террора: иерархия полномочий власти и карательных органов в центре и на периферии

Translated title of the contribution: "National" operations of Great terror: hierarchy of governing powers and punitive agencies in the center and the periphery

Наталья Николаевна Аблажей, Наталья Анатольевна Потапова

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of one of the key areas of repression in1937-1938 – "national" operations of the NKVD of the USSR, on which 347 thousand people were convicted. The place of ―national‖ operations in the history of the Great Terror, the powers of the punitive bodies, the mechanisms of implementation and statistics of repression, as well as the specific interests of the central government, regions and the NKVD are analysed on the materials of the office work of departments and extra-judicial authorities. It is concluded that the mass terror was initiated by the Politburo of the Bolsheviks party, which delegated the NKVD broad punitive powers, sanctioning the extra-judicial nature of the repression and the implementation of a series of linear punitive operations. In the years 1937-1938, the NKVD of the USSR organised eleven national punitive actions, which, under the control of the party and due to the vertical mechanism of organization of power, allowed to implement both all-union and regional punitive directions. The massive character of repressions was provided by the extra-judicial authorities (the NKVD Commission and Prosecutor of the USSR ("dvoika"), and Special meeting of the NKVD and Special "troikas". The repressions did not take the format of ethnic purges, although in the spring of 1938, when the "national" operations took the most important place in the punitive policy, there was a trend to this direction, as 60% of the repressed
were representatives of national minorities. The authors conclude that in the period of the Great terror in the USSR in the framework of the "national" operations the planned repressive actions aimed at "withdrawal" of "alien" and "non-indigenous" elements were carried out that led to the decline of expat
communities
Translated title of the contribution"National" operations of Great terror: hierarchy of governing powers and punitive agencies in the center and the periphery
Original languageRussian
Pages (from-to)151-162
Number of pages12
JournalМир Большого Алтая
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

OECD FOS+WOS

  • 6.01 HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY

State classification of scientific and technological information

  • 03 STORY. HISTORICAL SCIENCE
  • 03.23 History of Russia

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