Журналистика. Институализация профессии на рубеже XIX–XX веков: мировые тренды и российская специфика

Translated title of the contribution: Journalism. Institutionalization of profession on the boundary of 19th-20th centuries: World trends and russian specificity

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The article spans the growth of journalism as a profession, analyzes the process of its institutionalization in Europe, the USA and in Russia at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries. The focus of the article is the genesis and development of professional organizations associated with internal corporate professional reflection. The journalism as a profession was established and recognized by society and the professional community almost simultaneously in European countries, in the USA, and in Russia, in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. At the same period significant changes shocked the economic, political and social spheres of these countries. Strengthening the activities of trade unions, the spontaneous struggle of workers for their rights led almost everywhere to an increase in wages and a decrease in the length of the working day. Technical innovations improved the process of collecting and disseminating information. All these above-mentioned factors encouraged the rapid development of the mass press. Publishers and journalists faced a major challenge since society demands for journalism, as one of the most public professions, at that time was extremely high, but journalists and professional community did not meet them well. The article studies the goals and functions declared by public professional journalistic organizations. As a result of investigation the author identifies several types among these institutions: organizations that maintained and broadcasted ethical and professional standards; organizations that fought for the rights of members of the corporation; organizations that provided financial support to members of the corporation; organizations that provided training for journalists; organizations that solved commercial, business problems through the intercorporate cooperation, protection of commercial interests in relations with the state. Organizations from different countries gave priority to various aspects of journalistic activity. Whereas the first European professional journalism organizations usually joined forces of the editors, journalists, and publishers to solve ethical and social problems, in the United States commercial interests and professional ethics came to the fore, so the fight for the rights and struggle for freedom of speech were far less important. The experience of journalists of the “Progressive Era” and the “Muckrakers” indicates that this is primarily due to the characteristics of political system and traditions of the country. In Russia, the process of institutionalization of corporate relations developed in accordance with global trends, but, unlike them, under state control. The main functions of professional associations were supporting members financially, establishing and codifying ethical standards.

Translated title of the contributionJournalism. Institutionalization of profession on the boundary of 19th-20th centuries: World trends and russian specificity
Original languageRussian
Article number3
Pages (from-to)33-47
Number of pages15
JournalVestnik Novosibirskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, Seriya: Istoriya, Filologiya
Issue number6: Журналистика
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Ethical codes
  • Institutionalization
  • Journalism
  • Profession
  • Professional organizations



State classification of scientific and technological information



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