The influence of comorbidity on the results of surgical treatment of elderly and senile patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

V. S. Klimov, R. V. Khalepa, E. V. Amelina, A. V. Evsuykov, I. I. Vasilenko, D. A. Rzaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the influence of somatic comorbidity on the results of surgical treatment of elderly and senile patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Material and Methods: The study design corresponds to a single-center non-randomized retrospective cohort study with level 3 evidence (OCEBM Levels of Evidence Working Group. The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence). The influence of somatic comorbidity on quality of life after surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was analyzed in 962 patients 60-85 years old. Analysis and evaluation of the results of the study was carried out in two groups of patients with radicular compression syndrome: Group 1 (less than 5 points according to White - Panjabi criteria) included 625 (65%) patients, and Group 2 (5 or more points according to White - Panjabi criteria) - 337 (35%) patients. Results: Body mass index of patients in Group 1 was statistically significantly lower than in Group 2. Repeated surgical interventions performed during the first year after the primary operation were statistically significantly more frequent in Group 1, and those performed after 3-4 years were more frequent in Group 2 (BMI ≥ 30) due to the development of adjacent level disease. In obese patients, the duration of surgery, blood loss and postoperative hospital stay are statistically significantly increased. One year after surgery, a statistically significant negative effect of increase in BMI on the parameters of back pain, lower limb pain, functional adaptation, and quality of life was revealed in both groups of patients. No association of obesity and complication rates was noted. In Group 2, the incidence of adjacent level disease 2-5 years after the primary operation was higher in patients with BMI ≥ 30 compared with patients with BMI < 30 and with patients in Group 1. It was found that somatic comorbidity and the age of patients statistically significantly prolonged postoperative hospital stay in Group 1 and did not affect its duration in Group 2. No effect of the comorbidity index on the quality of life was noted. Osteoporosis was statistically significantly associated with an increase in the frequency of technical complications during surgery (malposition of pedicle screws, cage migration, and damage to the vertebral endplates). Conclusion: Obesity is statistically significantly associated with an increase in postoperative hospital stay, surgery duration and blood loss, and is a predictor of the development of instability of the spinal motion segment and adjacent level disease. Obese patients have higher levels of back and lower limb pain and worse quality of life parameters after surgical interventions than patients with normal body weight. When using minimally invasive technologies in the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine pathology, the number of complications in obese patients is not higher than in patients with normal body weight. The effect of comorbidity on the results of minimally invasive surgery for degenerative lumbar pathology was not detected. Osteoporosis affects the frequency of technical complications during surgery.

Translated title of the contributionВлияние сочетанной патологии на результаты хирургического лечения пациентов пожилого и старческого возраста с дегенеративным стенозом позвоночного канала на поясничном уровне
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-42
Number of pages12
JournalHirurgia Pozvonochnika
Volume17
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020

Keywords

  • Comorbidity
  • Elderly and senile patients
  • Lumbar spine
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Surgical treatment

State classification of scientific and technological information

  • 76.29 Clinical medicine

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